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swell factor of shot rock | LandDevelopmentDocs's Blog

Sep 15, 2010· Note: When blasting rock for a fill operation, there is a swell factor associated with blasted rock due to the fact that the rock is no longer in its compacted undisturbed natural form. It is now in little pieces which will have air pockets when place for fill. The swell factor based upon the type of rock can range from 15% to 50%

Original article Swelling damage in clay-rich sandstones ...

Sandstone is a sedimentary rock with mineral phases that normally include clays. Research has shown that the presence of these clays can affect the durability of the stone [11,12,20e22]. The example presented in this article illustrates how differ-ent factors, including the presence of clays, may combine to produce serious decay in sandstone ...

Stress reduction factor characterization for highly ...

Stress reduction factor characterization for highly stressed jointed rock based on tunneling data from Pakistan *Hafeezur Rehman1), Jung-Joo Kim2) and Han-Kyu Yoo3). 1), 2), 3) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791, Korea

How to Calculate the Swell Factor of Soil | eHow

Building on a soil with a large swell factor can be costly. Soils with a high percentage of swelling clay can be difficult to grow plants in because water may pool on the surface. Calculating the swell factor of soil depends on the amount of water it can hold. The swell factor of some soils can be high and create enough force to break concrete.

Formation Factor - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Jan 09, 2011· The sandstone formations were described as ranging from clean to very shaly. The formation factor was determined at a water resistivity of 0.01 ohm-m since, at that value, the apparent formation factor approached the true formation factor when the rock contained low-resistivity water. From their data, the following equation was provided:

Rock Types and Specific Gravity - Edumine

Rock Type Specific Gravity (gm/cc) Porosity % Granite 2.60 - 2.70 0.5 - 1.5 Dolerite 3.00 - 3.05 0.1 - 0.5 Sandstone 2.00 - 2.60 5.0 - 25.0 Shale 2.00 - 2.40 10.0 - 30.0 Limestone 2.20 - 2.60 5.0 - 20.0 Dolomite 2.50 - 2.60 1.0 - 5.0 Quartzite 2.65 0.1 - 0.5 ...

Keeper Potholes & How They Are Formed - UtahGeology

Cementation characteristics: Once a depression in the bedrock has been deepened enough to retain standing water, the slightly acidic stream or rainwater begins to dissolve the calcite cement that holds the grains of sandstone together. Other more complicated biological processes also work to dissolve the rock cementation (see "Glad You Asked," Survey Notes, 2007, v. 39, no. 3, p. 11).

Archie's law - Wikipedia

In petrophysics, Archie's law relates the in-situ electrical conductivity of a sedimentary rock to its porosity and brine saturation: = Here, denotes the porosity, the electrical conductivity of the fluid saturated rock, represents the electrical conductivity of the brine, is the brine saturation, is the cementation exponent of the rock (usually in the range 1.8–2.0 for sandstones), is the ...

Chapter 5 Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock

Chapter 5 Engineering Properties of Soil and Rock 5.1 Overview The purpose of this chapter is to identify, either by reference or explicitly herein, appropriate methods of soil and rock property assessment, and how to use that soil and rock property data to establish the final soil and rock parameters to be used for geotechnical design.

sandstone rock swell factor - Queen of Sheba

sandstone rock swell factor. How to Calculate the Swell Factor of Soil eHow Building on a soil with a large swell factor can be costly. Soils with a high percentage of swelling clay can be difficult to grow plants in because water may pool on the surface.

Moisture expansion as a deterioration factor for sandstone ...

Oct 17, 2010· The expansion processes that develop in building stones upon changes of moisture content may be an important contributing factor for their deteriorations. Until recently, few data could be found in the literature concerning this parameter and weathering processes. Moreover, the processes that may be responsible for the moisture related expansion of natural building stones are not yet ...

Bulking Factor – EXCAVATION & EARTHWORK

Apr 26, 2017· Bulking factor is a ratio comparing the volume of a quantity of moist granular material to the volume of the same quantity when dry. There are many ways of classifying the soil in terms of it's ease of excavation including seismic techniques. The most common in the United Kingdom at present however is the Ease of Digging scale…

Earthwork Design | FHWA - Transportation

Mar 09, 2020· Shrink and Swell Factors. Using data furnished by the Geotechnical Unit, the designer must check the characteristics of the material to be excavated or placed in embankments. The excavation used for embankments will range from rock to earth and have shrink/swell factors assigned for …

Chapter 4 Engineering Classification of Rock Materials

Chapter 4 Engineering Classification of Rock Materials 631.0400 Engineering properties of rock To use rock in engineering applications, certain prop-erties of the rock must be assessed to reasonably pre-dict performance in the as-built condition. The proper-ties of rock fall into two broad classes: rock …

OR/15/065 Appendix 4 - Bulking of soils & rocks ...

Sedimentary rock Breccia 2.4 33 Church (1981) Conglomerate 2.21 33 Church (1981) Sandstone 2.31 to 2.45 39 to 50 Hartman (1992) Sandstone 2.42 61 Church (1981) Sandstone 2.1 to 2.4 75 to 80 Engineering tool box Sandstone 2.5 60 Durham University Sandstone 2.65 61 Durham University Shale 2.64 50 Church (1981) Shale 2.35 50 Durham University

Earthworks - Durham University

Medium to Hard - eg broken rock, wet heavy clay, gravel with boulders H Hard - material requiring blasting and hard high PI clays. Typical diggability factors can be seen in Table 1 below. Another important feature of rock is the amount of fissuring.

List of rock types - Wikipedia

Argillite – Sedimentary rock, mostly of indurated clay particles; Arkose – A type of sandstone containing at least 25% feldspar; Banded iron formation – Distinctive layered units of iron-rich sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age; Breccia – Rock composed of broken fragments cemented by a matrix; Calcarenite – A type of limestone that is composed predominantly of ...

Swell Factors for Various Soils - ProjectEngineer

Sep 26, 2013· Swell is expressed as a percentage of natural volume, for example, if 10 yd 3 in the ground becomes 13 yd 3 after excavation, the swell factor is 30%. The following table lists swell factors for various engineering materials.

Blasting and Explosives Quick Reference Guide 2010

Powder factor = 0.5kg per square metre of face Do not stem holes. Fire all holes on the same delay, or in groups of ≥ 5 holes Smooth Blasting Spacing = 15 x Hole diameter (hard rock) 20 x Hole diameter (soft rock) Burden = 1.25 x Spacing Fire as many holes as possible on one delay. Stem holes. Powder factors Typical powder factors

Application of Shrinkage and Swelling Factors on State ...

swelling factors. It appears that earthwork is left at the risk of the contractor. 5. Application of swell percentages was inconsistent among the various DOT earthwork calculation methods. 6. The inclusion and definition of rock (drillable rock or at auger refusal) has a large impact

4 Aggregate Specifications and Requirements

Sandstone Aggregates Coarse sandstone is required to meet the Class B quality requirements, and may only be used in HMA or SMA surface mixtures. Sandstone is defined as a sedimentary rock composed of siliceous sandgrains containing quartz, chert, and quartzose rock fragments in a carbonite matrix or cemented with silica, calcite, or dolomite.

Explain the swell factor of soil, Civil Engineering

Explain the Swell Factor of Soil. A soil's swell factor represents the fact that the volume of soil placed by nature in the ground is not the same as the volume of the same mass of dirt excavated by the contractor and placed in the dump truck. The same mass of soil occupies more volume in the truck (loose cubic yards) than it does in the ground ...

MINING AND EARTHMOVING - Holt

Instead of dividing by 1 + Swell to determine bank volume, the loose volume can be multiplied by the load factor. If the percent of material swell is known, the load factor (L.F.) may be obtained by using the following relationship: L.F. = _____ + % swell Load factors for various materials are listed in the Tables Section of this ...